Skip to main content
  • Original article
  • Open access
  • Published:

Clinical and immunological profile of systemic lupus erythematosus in a pediatric population in North India



Systemic lupus erythematosus is usually missed in the pediatric population because of lower awareness among pediatricians.


The aim of this work was to study the clinical and immunological profile of lupus in children.

Settings and design

This study was carried out at a tertiary teaching institute of North India; this was a retrospective hospital-based study.

Participants and methods

Case records of 16 children of systemic lupus erythematosus in the age group 5–15 years were reviewed from hospital records.

Statistical analysis used

Means, proportions, and percentages were calculated using Epi Info 7.


The mean age of children at the time of diagnosis was 12.1 years, with a female to male ratio of 5: 1. Fever (81.2%), rash (68.7%), arthritis (56.2%), and photosensitivity (56.2%) were the common clinical manifestations. Anemia was observed in 56.2%, whereas thrombocytopenia was noted in 31.2%. The kidney was the second most common system to be involved, with involvement in 43.7% of cases. Central nervous system involvement was observed in 31.2% of cases. Cardiac involvement was noted in 18% of cases. Antinuclear antibody was positive in all children. Three children died; two died of severe sepsis and one because of cardiogenic shock.


Systemic lupus should be considered a possible cause in adolescents presenting with multisystem involvement.


  1. Ardoin SP, Schanberg LE. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Schor NF, Geme JWS, Behrman RE,editors. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier 2012; 841–845.

  2. Font J, Cervera R, Espinosa G, Pallarés L, Ramos-Casals M, Jiménez S, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in childhood: analysis of clinical and immunological findings in 34 patients and comparison adults. Ann Rheum Dis 1998; 57:456–459.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Rood MJ, ten Cate R, van Suijlekom-Smit LW, den Ouden EJ, Ouwerkerk FE, Breedveld FC, et al. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical presentation and prognosis in 31 patients. Scand J Rheumatol 1999; 28:222–226.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Tucker LB, Menon S, Schaller JG, Isenberg DA. Adult and childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparison of onset, clinical features, serology, and outcome. Br J Rheumatol 1995; 34:866–872.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Tucker LB, Uribe AG, Fernandez M, Vilá LM, McGwin G, Apte M, et al. Adolescent onset of lupus results in more aggressive disease and worse outcomes: results of a nested matched case–control study within LUMINA, a multiethnic US cohort (LUMINA LVII). Lupus 2008; 17:314–322.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Mina R, Brunner HI. Paediatric lupus — are there differences in presentation, genetics, response to therapy, and damage accrual compared with adult lupus. Rheum Dis Clin N Am 2010; 36:53–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Hochberg MC. Updating the American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40:1725.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Churg J, Bernstein J, Glassock RJ. Lupus Nephritis, In: Churg J, Berstein J, Glassock RJ, eds. Renal diseases. Classification and atlas of glomerular disease. 2nd ed. New York: Igaku-Shoin; 1995:151.

  9. Chandrashekran AN, Rajendran CP, Ramakrishan S, Madhavan R, Pratibhan M. Childhood systemic lupus erythematosus in South India. Indian J Pediatr 1994; 61:223–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Pradhan V, Patwardhan M, Rajadhyaksha A, Ghosh K. Clinical and immunological profile of systemic lupus erythematosus. Indian Pediatr 2013; 50:405–407.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Singh S, Kumar L, Khetarpal R, Aggarwal P, Marwaha RK, Minz RW, et al. Clinical and immunological profile of SLE: some unusual features. Indian Pediatr 1997; 34:979–986.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Hari P, Bagga A, Mahajan P, Dinda A. Outcome of lupus nephritis in Indian children. Lupus 2009; 18:348–354.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Cassidy JT, Petty RE. Systemic lupus erythematosus. In: Cassidy JT, Petty RE, Eds. Textbook of pediatric rheumatology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA, USA: W.B. Saunders Company 1995; 260–322.

  14. Schur PH. In: Kelly WN, Harris ED, Ruddy S, Sledge CB, editors. Clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus. Textbook of rheumatology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company 1993; 1017–1042.

  15. Cameron JS. Lupus nephritis in childhood and adolescence. Paediatr Nephrol 1994; 8:230–249.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Petty RE, Laxer RM. In: Cassidy JT, Petty RE, Laxer RM, Lindsley CB, editors. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Textbook of pediatric rheumatology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsiever Saunders 2005; 342–391.

  17. Ali US, Dalvi AS, Merchant RH, Mehta KP, Chablani AT, Badakere SS, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Indian children. Indian Pediatr 1989; 26:868–873.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bhardwaj Parveen MD,DNB.

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Vijay, Y., Parveen, B. Clinical and immunological profile of systemic lupus erythematosus in a pediatric population in North India. Egypt Rheumatol Rehabil 41, 148–151 (2014).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: