Skip to main content

The prevalence of fibromyalgia among school children in Kalubia

Abstract

Aim of the work

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFMS) among school children in Kalubia.

Patients and methods

This is a cross-sectional study conducted on school children in Kalubia governorate in January 2012 to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome among school children. A total of 2000 children attending on the days of our visits were recruited from (a) primary and (b) preparatory schools. JFMS was diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) revised criteria 2010.

Results

We found that the prevalence of fibromyalgia among students in Kalubia governorate was 1.25%. Widespread pain and fatigue were found in all JFMS cases (100%), muscle stiffness was found in 14 cases (56%), and decreased physical activity in 12 cases (48%). Migraine was detected in 13 cases (52%), whereas sleep disturbance was present in 10 cases (40%). Also, depression was found in 10 cases (40%) and anxiety in two cases (8%). Irritable bowel symptom was detected in five cases (20%), but both weight fluctuation and atypical chest pain were recorded in one case (4%).

Conclusion

Pediatricians and other health providers should suspect JFMS in children suffering from pain, fatigue, and heat and exercise intolerance.

References

  1. Anthony KK, Schanberg LE. Juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2001; 3:162–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Arnold LM, Hudson JI, Hess EV. Family study of fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50:944–952.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Lucas HJ, Brauch CM, Settas L, Theoharides TC. Fibromyalgia –new concepts of pathogenesis and treatment. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2006; 19:5–10.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Kashikar-Zuck S, Vaught MH, Gold KR. Depression, coping, and functional disability in juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. J Pain 2002; 3:412–419.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Clark P, Burgos Vargas R, Medina Palma C. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in children: a clinical study of Mexican children. J Rheumatol 2008; 25:2009–2014.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Breau LM. Review of juvenile primary fibromyalgia & chronic fatigue syndrome. J Behav Pediatr 1999; 20:278–288.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Clauw D. Fibromyalgia: update on mechanisms and management. J Clin Rheumatol 2007; 13:102–109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Clauw DJ, Schmidt-Wilcke T. Fibromyalgia: from pathophysiology to therapy. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2011; 19:518–527.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Häuser W, Kosseva M, Üceyler N, Klose P, Sommer C. Emotional, physical, and sexual abuse in fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2011; 63:808–820.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, Goldenberg DL, Katz RS, Mease P, et al. American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia. Pain 2010; 150:250–264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Cohen H, Neumann L, Shore M. Autonomic dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia: application of power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2000; 29:217–227

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Sanjida A, Gleason RM. National fibromyalgia association survey on children with fibromyalgia: preliminary results. Arthritis Rheum 2010; 62:807.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Anderberg UM, Marteinsdottir I, Theorell T, von Knorring L. The impact of life events in female patients with fibromyalgia and in female healthy controls. Eur Psychiatry 2000; 15:295–301.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Buskila D, Press J. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in Israeli school. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 1993; 15:747–758.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Tayel MY, Tayel KY. Prevalence of juvenile chronic arthritis in school children aged 10 to 15 years in Alexandria. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 1999; 74:529–546.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Yunus MB. Role of central sensitization in symptoms beyond muscle pain, and the evaluation of a patient with widespread pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2007; 21:481–497.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Jaime C, Bronco Bannwarth, et al. Prevalence of Fibromyalgia: A Survey in Five European Countries. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2010; 39:448–453.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Almansa C. Prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders in patients with fibromyalgia and the role of psychological distress. Proceding 2009; 7:438–445.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Okifuji A, Turk DC, Sherman JJ. Evaluation of the relationship between depression and fibromy- algia syndrome: why aren’t all patients depressed? J Rheumatol 2000; 27:212–219.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Kashikar-Zuck S, Zafar M, Barnett KA, et al. Quality of life and emotional functioning in youth with chronic migraine and juvenile fibromyalgia. Clin J Pain 2013; 26:303–306.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Tommaso M, Sardaro M, Serpino C, Costantini F, Vecchio E, et al. Fibromyalgia comorbidity in primary headaches. Cephalalgia 2009; 29:453–464.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Turk DC. Management of fibromyalgia. N Engl J Med 2010; 363:743.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Bartels EM. Fibromyalgia, diagnosis and prevalence: are gender differences explainable?. Ugeskr Leaguer 2009; 171:3588–3592.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nashwa E. Hashaad MD.

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fuda, A., Soliman, Y.A., Hashaad, N.E. et al. The prevalence of fibromyalgia among school children in Kalubia. Egypt Rheumatol Rehabil 41, 135–138 (2014). https://doi.org/10.4103/1110-161X.140531

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/1110-161X.140531

Keywords

  • fibromyalgia syndrome
  • juvenile
  • Kalubia
  • school children